Scopes in JavaScript

Scopes in JavaScript are a fundamental concept to understand how the visibility and accessibility of variables is managed within your code.

Types of scopes: Link to heading

Global scope: Link to heading

  • It is the widest scope.
  • Variables declared with var (currently not recommended), let or const within the main code have global scope.

Example: Link to heading

var globalVar = "I am global";

function greet() {
    console.log(globalVar); // Can access the global variable

console.log(globalVar); // Can be accessed from anywhere in the code

Function scope: Link to heading

  • Variables declared with let or const within a function have local scope to said function.
  • They are not accessible from outside the function.

Example: Link to heading

function introduce() {
    let name = "John";
    const age = 30;
    console.log(name, age); // Can only be accessed inside the function

// console.log(name); // Error: name is not defined
// console.log(age); // Error: age is not defined (out of scope)

Block scope: Link to heading

  • Introduced with ES6 (ECMAScript 2015), let and const also create block scope.
  • Variables declared inside blocks (with curly braces {}) such as if statements, for loops, etc. They are only accessible within that block.

Example: Link to heading

if (true) {
  let message = "Hello";

console.log(message); // Error: message is not defined (outside of block)

Summary Link to heading

  • It is recommended to use let and const to declare variables instead of var.
  • let and const create block scope by default.
  • Global variables should be avoided as much as possible, as they can cause name conflicts and make code difficult to maintain.

Keep learning about scopes to write more modular and organized JavaScript code!

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