Classes and Objects

In this class, we will delve into object-oriented programming (OOP), which is a programming paradigm that uses objects to create programs.

OOP Basics Link to heading

  • Class: It is a model that defines the characteristics and behavior of an object.
  • Object: It is an instance of a class that has its own characteristics and behavior.
  • Attribute: It is a variable that defines a characteristic of an object.
  • Method: It is a function that defines a behavior of an object.

Creating a class Link to heading

class ClassName:
    """Class documentation"""

    # Attributes

    # Methods

Example: Link to heading

class Person:
    """Class that defines a Person object."""

    # Attributes
    name = ""
    age = 0

    # Methods
    def greet(self):
        """Method that prints a personalized greeting."""

        print(f"Hello, my name is {} and I am {self.age} years old.")

person1 = Person() = "Ana"
person1.age = 25

person2 = Person() = "John"
person2.age = 30


Exit: Link to heading

Hello, my name is Ana and I am 25 years old.
Hello, my name is John and I am 30 years old.

In this example:

  • A class called Person is defined that has two attributes (name and age) and a method (greet).
  • Two objects of the Person class are created (person1 and person2).
  • Values ​​are assigned to the attributes of the objects.
  • The greet method of the objects is called.

Inheritance Link to heading

Inheritance is a mechanism that allows one class to inherit the attributes and methods of another class.

Example: Link to heading

class Student(Person):
    def __init__(self, name, age, race):
        super().__init__(name, age) = career

    def study(self):
        print(f"I am studying {}.")

student1 = Student("Ana", 25, "Engineering")


Exit: Link to heading

Hello, my name is Ana and I am 25 years old.
I am studying engineering.

In this example:

  • A class Student is defined that inherits from the class Person.
  • The class Student has a new attribute: career.
  • The class Student has a new method: study.

Exercise Link to heading

Defines a Car class with the attributes make, model and license plate.

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